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5G TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

Telecom is going through a digital revolution in terms of technology, business models, ecosystem, services, and 5G is set to revolutionize industries. 5G presents a huge opportunity for the digitalization of economies and modernization of all industry sectors.

Today’s scenario, all the mobile subscribers needs a faster speed of data along with more reliable and trusted service. This latest technology promise to deliver with high efficiency and fastest speed. With this revolutionary technology, the users will enjoy the high speed for high quality. The user will be able to download the high definition files in few seconds rather spending few minutes on downloading the same file in 4G LTE.

This fifth-generation wireless technology is presently creating much exhilaration in the telecommunications industry and is the next successful and most demanding advanced technology in wireless data communications. Apart from other communications, the new 5G technology is not the updated version of 1G to 2G, 3G, 4G mobile communications. It is a totally different technology. Basically, 5G provides higher bandwidth and high data rates with remarkably less delays during transmission of signals.

When Samsung announced that it tested 5G at speeds of 1 GB/second, the prospect of being able to download a HD movie in 30 seconds made headlines. When analysts said that in fact, 5G will run at speeds of 800 GB/second, the excitement of being able to download 33 HD films in one second was difficult to contain.

With users wanting faster downloads, and service providers wanting to provide customers with a seamless user experience, the world awaits ‘real’ 5G – not the ‘concept’ of 5G that we are familiar with today.

But what would a 5G network mean? Would 5G unfurl a new world of fully connected sensors and devices? Would 5G network rewrite the fundamentals for social and economic change, one which blurs geographical and cultural boundaries?

Studies on 5G point to the following:

  • Impact on select industries in the near term: 5G will wield a huge influence in Automotive Healthcare and IoT in the near future, and will dramatically change lives. 5G however will take time to have a similar effect on other industries.
  • 5G will generate new revenue streams. Per recent research1, 5G network has the potential to unlock up to $12.3 trillion of revenue across a broad range of industries, which is more than the combined spending of China, Japan, France, Germany and the UK (in 2016).
  • 5G technology will create new growth, and millions of jobs: By 2035, output from 5G’s global value chain (network operators, technology and component suppliers, device OEMs, infrastructure providers, content and application developers) will be larger than what the entire mobile value chain is today. In terms of contribution to global GDP, research predicts that contribution of 5G between 2020 and 2035 will equal the size of India’s economy today. Also, analysts see 5G supporting 22 million jobs globally.
  • 5G will kindle and drive the innovation/invention of new genres of products and services leading to smarter industries, cities, homes, and healthier lives. 5G technology will give rise to new industries, while having an impact of existing businesses – in terms of the products and services provided. Research indicates positive outlooks on 5G’s capability to ensure security and reliability.

While 5G evolves into something more tangible, much will depend on investments being made in 5G infrastructure, and related applications, products and services. In the near term, broad consensus is that initial deployments of 5G will be driven by enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB). However, eMBB alone would not create substantial revenue from 5G for network operators. Past migrations from one generation of mobile technology to the next invariably meant consumers pay almost similar amounts while data speeds increased, and call-data allowances grew due to falling unit network cost.

For wide-spread, transformative impact, and tangible business benefits, the 5th generation of wireless network technologies will need to expand its scope. The possibilities from 5G technology are immense:

Most importantly, 5G makes it possible to explore new ways to manage networks, such as network slicing which enables a single physical network to support many virtual networks with different performance features. For example, on the same infrastructure, one network slice can deliver high-speed mobile broad-band, which another slice might low consumption of terminals over speed of the connection.

5G makes it possible to use the same infrastructure to provide different services to different user groups, and industry-sectors. 5G will therefore open scope for new business models vs. the current environment where network providers offer the same services, and the only differentiation is in the pricing/bill plans.

The technology can be implemented in various new applications such as humanoid robots, autonomous vehicles, connected cars, and the Internet of Things. In other words, 5G technology can connect ships, vehicles, buildings, machines and other items with electronics, software, sensors and the Cloud. Also, embedded 5G technology will allow devices to exchange information and integrate computer-based systems in the physical world.

 In order to achieve the objectives of 5G technology, the wireless researchers and service providers are planning and designing new technologies agenda. The major technologies including in 5G include millimeter waves, small cells, MIMO, full duplex, and the beamforming. In collaboration when these technologies are implemented together, will deliver data with less delay which is approximately less than one millisecond, when compared to 4G networks speed which is approximately 70 ms and brought peak download speeds of 20 gigabits per second as compared to 1 Gb/s on 4G to users.

 Today’s existing wireless networks are crammed as compared to before. Today more number of people and devices are consuming a massive amount of data, and the networks are crowded on the same bands of the radio-frequency spectrum. These existing wireless networks thereby provide very slow transmission and less bandwidth to the user and this leads to more number of connections drops. In order to combat the slow transmission and less bandwidth, preferably, multiple service providers are implementing broadcasting data or signals on millimeter waves.

As per the definition, these millimeter waves use higher frequencies from 30 to 300 gigahertz with the length from one to ten mm as compared to the other radio waves. If the drawbacks of millimeter waves are concerned, the millimeter waves cannot easily penetrate and travel through obstacles or walls of buildings. Due to the major drawbacks, there is a need to replace the traditional base station antennas with multiple small cells in the city. Basically, this new technology called Small cells. These small cells are basically the portable and miniature (small) base stations that need minimum power for their operation. These can be placed at less distance at approximately every 250 meters and even coverage throughout the cities. However, in order to prevent signals from being dropped, various small cells in a city can be installed to form a dense network.

In 4G base stations, there are many ports for antennas that can handle and manage all cellular traffic. These ports can be around a dozen which are divided as eight are for transmitters, and other four are set for receivers. In 5G, MIMO technology is implemented which is basically multiple input and multiple outputs. In MIMO, the base stations can support around a hundred ports. These ports are fitted with more number of antennas on a single station. In 5G, these base station can send and receive signals from multiple users at the same time. The multiple sending and receiving of signals thereby surge the capacity of mobile networks.

Another technology is beamforming technology which is basically a traffic-signalling system. In beamforming, the cellular base stations identify and opt for the best efficient data route to a particular user. This technology can thereby reduce interference for nearby users in the process. Lastly, in 5G, the full-duplex technology, a transceiver can transmit and receive data signals at the same time and even on the same frequency.

Big Players in 5G technology

There are many major companies in the race of 5G technology. Various 5G patent owners and market leaders are there in the market by enabling 5G connectivity in various markets. The annual increase in the 5G patent in time is remarkably huge. There were around 3600 patents in 2016, and they surge to 5600 in 2018. Also, the number of 5G patent registrations has increased rapidly in recent years. The 5G SEP owners are Samsung Electronics, Huawei Technologies, ZTE and Ericsson Inc. However, Intel, Nokia and Qualcomm are also in the SEP race of 5G technology. In consideration of the technical contribution to the 5G standard. The 5G standard is developed and drafted at international meetings where companies present and submit technical contributions. Huawei, Hisilicon, Samsung, Nokia, Qualcomm and Ericsson are actively involved in deciding technical specification of the 5G standard.

CONCLUSION

The World Economic Forum describes 5G as the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The major players in the 5G market claim that 5G will be bigger than electricity by 2035. This new technology names as 5G are going to generate billions of dollars in upcoming years when implemented for various applications. There are many telecom sector giants who are motivated to get a hold on the upcoming wave.

According to the analysis by the wireless project engineers who believe that much research is yet to be performed in almost all of the areas. Therefore, it would be difficult to predict the industry leader in the market at this stage. However, the one with a huge business approach, research, and patent strategy, certainly, will be the leader in the race.

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