What is an electric car

electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy stored in rechargeable batteries. The first practical electric cars were produced in the 1880s.[1] Electric cars were popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century, until advances in internal combustion engines, electric starters in particular, and mass production of cheaper gasoline vehicles led to a decline in the use of electric drive vehicles.

From 2008, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries, and the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve urban air quality.[2] Several national and local governments have established government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles, tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to promote the introduction and adoption in the mass market of new electric vehicles, often depending on battery size, their electric range and purchase price. The current maximum tax credit allowed by the US Government is US$7,500 per car.[3] Compared with internal combustion engine cars, electric cars are quieter, and have no tailpipe emissions and lower emissions in general.[4] In January 2019 and updated in April, a Reuters analysis of 29 global automakers concluded that automakers are planning on spending $300 billion over the next 5 to 10 years on electric cars, with 45% of that investment projected to occur in China.

how to charge?

Charging an electric car can be done at a variety of charging stations, these charging stations can be installed in both houses and public areas.[6] The Tesla Model 3 was the world’s best selling EV from 2018 to 2019 and had a maximum electric range of 500 km (310 miles) according to the EPA.[7][8][9]

As of December 2018, there were about 5.3 million light-duty all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in use around the world.[10] Despite the rapid growth experienced, the global stock of plug-in electric cars represented just about 1 out of every 250 vehicles (0.40%) on the world’s roads by the end of 2018.[11] The plug-in car market is shifting towards fully electric battery vehicles, as the global ratio between annual sales of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) rose from 56:44 in 2012, to 60:40 in 2015, and 69:31 in 2018


Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle (EV). The term “electric vehicle” refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while “electric car” generally refers to highway-capable automobiles powered by electricity. Low-speed electric vehicles, classified as NEVs in the United States,[14] and as electric motorised quadricycles in Europe,[15] are plug-in electric-powered microcars or city cars with limitations in terms of weight, power and maximum speed that are allowed to travel on public roads and city streets up to a certain posted speed limit, which varies by country.

While an electric car’s power source is not explicitly an on-board battery, electric cars with motors powered by other energy sources are typically referred to by a different name. An electric car carrying solar panels to power it is a solar car, and an electric car powered by a gasoline generator is a form of hybrid car. Thus, an electric car that derives its power from an on-board battery pack is a form of battery electric vehicle (BEV). Most often, the term “electric car” is used to refer to battery electric vehicles, but may also refer to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

Environmental aspects

Electric cars have several benefits over conventional internal combustion engine automobiles, including a significant reduction of local air pollution, as they do not directly emit pollutants such as particulates (soot), volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen.[78][79][80]

Depending on the production process and the source of the electricity to charge the vehicle, emissions may be partly shifted from cities to the material transportation, production plants and generation plants.[42] The amount of carbon dioxide emitted depends on the emissions of the electricity source, and the efficiency of the vehicle. For electricity from the grid, the emissions vary significantly depending on your region, the availability of renewable sources and the efficiency of the fossil fuel-based generation used.[81][82][83]

The same is true of ICE vehicles. The sourcing of fossil fuels (oil well to tank) causes further damage and use of resources during the extraction and refinement processes, including high amounts of electricity.

The cost of installing charging infrastructure has been estimated to be repaid by health cost savings in less than 3 years.[84]

In December 2016, Nissan reported that Leaf owners worldwide achieved the milestone of 3 billion kilometers (1.9 billion miles) driven collectively through November 2016


Electric motors can provide high power-to-weight ratios, batteries can be designed to supply the currents needed to support these motors. Electric motors have flat torque curve down to zero speed. For simplicity and reliability, many electric cars use fixed-ratio gearboxes and have no clutch.

Many electric cars have higher acceleration than average internal combustion cars, largely due to reduced drivetrain frictional losses, and the more quickly available torque of an electric motor.[94] However Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEVs) may have a low acceleration due to their relatively weak motors.

Electric vehicles can also use a direct motor-to-wheel configuration that increases the available power. Having motors connected directly to each wheel simplifies using the motor for both propulsion and braking, increasing traction.[failed verification][95][96][97] Electric vehicles that lack an axle, differential, or transmission can have less drive-train inertia.

For example, the Venturi Fetish delivers supercar acceleration despite a relatively modest 220 kW (300 hp), and top speed of around 160 km/h (100 mph). Some DC-motor-equipped drag racer EVs have simple two-speed manual transmissions to improve top speed.[98] The 2008 Tesla Roadster 2.5 Sport can accelerate from 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in 3.7 seconds with a motor rated at 215 kW (288 hp).[99] Tesla Model S P100D (Performance / 100kWh / 4-wheel drive) is capable of 2.28 seconds for 0–60 mph at a price of $140,000.[100] As of May 2017, the P100D is the second quickest production car ever built, taking only 0.08 seconds longer for 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph), compared to a $847,975 Porsche 918 Spyder.[101] The concept electric supercar Rimac Concept One claims it can go from 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) in 2.5 seconds. Tesla claims the upcoming Tesla Roadster could go 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 1.9 seconds.


Internal combustion engines have thermodynamic limits on efficiency, expressed as fraction of energy used to propel the vehicle compared to energy produced by burning fuel. Gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy content to move the vehicle or to power accessories, and diesel engines can reach on-board efficiency of 20%, while electric vehicles have efficiencies of 69-72%, when counted against stored chemical energy, or around 59-62%, when counted against required energy to recharge.[103][104]

Electric motors are more efficient than internal combustion engines in converting stored energy into driving a vehicle. However, they are not equally efficient at all speeds. To allow for this, some cars with dual electric motors have one electric motor with a gear optimised for city speeds and the second electric motor with a gear optimised for highway speeds. The electronics select the motor that has the best efficiency for the current speed and acceleration.[105] Regenerative braking, which is most common in electric vehicles, can recover as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking.[42][103] Efficiency increases when renewable electricity is used[106]

Cabin heating and cooling Edit
While heating can be provided with an electric resistance heater, higher efficiency and integral cooling can be obtained with a reversible heat pump. PTC junction cooling[107] is also attractive for its simplicity — this kind of system is used, for example, in the 2008 Tesla Roadster.

To avoid using part of the battery’s energy for heating and thus reducing the range, some models allow the cabin to be heated while the car is plugged in. For example, the Nissan Leaf, the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Renault Zoe and the Tesla Model S and 3 can be pre-heated while the vehicle is plugged in.[108][109][110]

Some electric cars, for example the Citroën Berlingo Electrique, use an auxiliary heating system (for example gasoline-fueled units manufactured by Webasto or Eberspächer) but sacrifice “green” and “Zero emissions” credentials. Cabin cooling can be augmented with solar power external batteries and USB fans or coolers, or by automatically allowing outside air to flow through the car when parked. Two models of the 2010 Toyota Prius include this feature as an option.

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